why mediterranean in lower case? 
 

Glossary of terms - C


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calyx

The grouping of sepals, floral appendages usually smaller than the petals, which they enclose and protect when a flower is in bud.

calyx tube

A tube formed by the fusion of the sepals (calyx units), at least at the base.

campanulate

Bell-shaped.

capitate

With knob-like head; of an inflorescence, with the flowers unstalked and aggregated into a dense cluster; of a stigma, like the head of a pin.

capsule

A dry fruit formed from two of more united carpels and dehiscing when ripe (usually by splitting into pieces or opening at summit by teeth or pores).

carpel

A female organ borne at the center of a flower, consisting of an ovary, a style and a stigma.  The gynoecium is the collective term for all the carpels of a single flower.

catkin

A spike, usually pendulous, in which the mostly small flowers are unisexual and without a conspicuous perianth; e.g. willows, poplars, oaks and casuarinas.  The individual flowers often have scaly bracts; they are generally wind-pollinated.  The catkins are usually shed as a unit.

caudate

Having a narrow tail-like appendage.

caudex

A thickened, short, perennial stem that is either underground or near ground level.

chaparral

From the Spanish chaparro, which means a dwarf evergreen oak, this term is used to designate the dense, often impenetrable, drough-resistant vegetation found primarily in California, Baja, and Mexico.  It is shaped by the mediterranean climate and wildfire, and is similar to maquis (Mediterranean), matorral (Chile), fynbos (South Africa), and kwongan (Western Australia).

chasmophyte

Plant species that colonise cracks and openings in vertical rock faces or cliffs.

chimera

An individual composed of two or more genetically different tissues, within the individual, by mutations and irregularities that occur during cell division, between two individuals as a result of a graft.

chiropterophilous

Pollinated by bats.

circinate

(circinnate) Spirally coiled with the tip innermost; e.g. the developing fronds of most ferns.

circumscription

In plant taxonomy, this is the definition of the limits of a given taxon, at whatever level : Domain; Kingdom; Phylum; Class; Order; Family; Genus; species; subspecies, etc.

cladode

A cladode is a modified stem that performs the function of a leaf.

class

A taxonimic ranking: Domain; Kingdom; Phylum; Class; Order; Family; Genus; Species.

cleistogamous

Flowers that self-pollinate and never open fully, or self-pollinate before opening.

clone

Plants derived from the vegetative reproduction of an individual, all having the same genetic constitution.

colchicine

A poisonous, pale-yellow alkaloid, C22H25NO6, obtained from the autumn crocus and used in plant breeding to induce chromosome doubling.

composite

A typical composite flower (e.g. daisy) is composed of two flower types: a row of petal-like ray flowers surrounding the central group disk flowers.

compound umbel

Branches or rays arising from a common point, about equal length or entending to the same plane, resembling framework of an umbrella, each terminating in its own umbel.

coppicing

The practise of cutting some trees or shrubs down to ground level in order to stimulate new, long, straight shoot either for effect or to harvest for a particular use.

corolla

The grouping of petals in a flower.

cruciform

having four elements at right angles to each other - i.e. in the shape of a cross or X

cultivar

A variety of a plant selected or developed from a natural species and maintained in through deliberate cultivation - when a cultivar is named, this name is written in title case and surrounded by single quotes.


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